Archivio della categoria: Letteratura scientifica

MONITORAGGIO ACQUE: D’Ambrosio, E., De Girolamo, A. M., Spanò, M., Corbelli, V., Capasso, G., Morea, M., … & Ricci, G. F. (2019). A spatial analysis to define data requirements for hydrological and water quality models in data-limited regions. Water, 11(2), 267.

Lo studio proposto fa riferimento ad una serie di analisi condotte presso il canale D’Aiedda allo scopo di elaborare modelli relativi alla qualità delle acque nella zona specifica. E’ stato costituito un database che include diversi parametri relativi alla zona, tra cui dati climatici ed relativi alle attività agricole nei territori limitrofi. L’approccio utilizzato, tenendo in considerazione dati di origine diversa e mettendoli in relazione, è finalizzato all’elaborazione di un modello che possa essere utilizzato in zone dalle analoghe caratteristiche

Abstract

The objective of the present work is a spatial analysis aimed at supporting hydrological and water quality model applications in the Canale d’Aiedda basin (Puglia, Italy), a data-limited area. The basin is part of the sensitive environmental area of Taranto that requires remediation of the soil, subsoil, surface water, and groundwater. A monitoring plan was defined to record the streamflow and water quality parameters needed for calibrating and validating models, and a database archived in a GIS environment was built, which includes climatic data, soil hydraulic parameters, groundwater data, surface water quality parameters, point-source parameters, and information on agricultural practices. Based on a one-year monitoring of activities, the average annual loads of N-NO3 and P-PO4 delivered to the Mar Piccolo amounted to about 42 t year−1, and 2 t year−1, respectively. Knowledge uncertainty in monthly load estimation was found to be up to 25% for N-NO3 and 40% for P-PO4. The contributions of point sources in terms of N-NO3 and P-PO4 were estimated at 45% and 77%, respectively. This study defines a procedure for supporting modelling activities at the basin scale for data-limited regions.

MODELLISTICA AMBIENTALE: De Serio, F., Armenio, E., Meftah, M. B., Capasso, G., Corbelli, V., De Padova, D., … & Pini, A. (2020). Detecting sensitive areas in confined shallow basins. Environmental Modelling & Software, 126, 104659.

Lo studio proposto che vede fra i suoi autori il Commissario insieme ad alcuni stretti collaboratori prende in considerazione il ruolo dei modelli numerici e delle misurazioni di campo al fine di impedire il deterioramento ambientale dei bacini costieri. Sulla base di queste specifiche viene delineato e descritto un modello meteorologico-idrodinamico per identificare i processi in corso nel Mar Piccolo.

Abstract

Coastal shallow basins are often heavily anthropized and greatly exposed to environmental risk areas, thus requiring strict monitoring action by local authorities and stakeholders. Preventive measures against environmental degradation and early warning to hazards have been proved to benefit from the combined use of numerical models and field measurements. The present work sets out to show the potential of a meteorological-hydrodynamic model system, validated with field data, to identify the main physical processes characterizing a semi-enclosed basin located in the inner part of the Ionian Sea, in southern Italy. Furthermore, based on the model results, we adopted some convenient indicators, especially related to flow exchanges, in order to identify and characterize the area in the basin most sensitive to environmental problems. The results highlight the retentive feature of the inner part of the basin and different times necessary for the water renewal in both the surface and bottom layers.

GEOFISICA MARINA: Scardino, Giovanni, et al. “The Footprints of the Wreckage of the Italian Royal Navy Battleship Leonardo Da Vinci on the Mar Piccolo Sea-Bottom (Taranto, Southern Italy).” Oceans. Vol. 1. No. 2. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2020.

Lo studio pubblicato fa riferimento direttamente all’attività del Commissario Straordinario Vera Corbelli, citata fra gli autori della pubblicazione, nell’ambito del Mar Piccolo. Il progetto per la rilevazione dell’impatto antropico nel Mar Piccolo e nel Mar Grande, condotto attraverso un approccio multidisciplinare, ha permesso di identificare come alcune delle depressioni presenti sul fondale, inizialmente ritenute di origine naturale, fossero invece da associarsi all’affondamento della nave da battaglia Leonardo Da Vinci nel 1916 ed alle successive operazioni di recupero.

ABSTRACT

Over the last two decades, the scientific interest for marine geophysical surveys has shown a huge increase, mostly for multidisciplinary applicability on different studies, from historical heritage to environmental remediation. One of the main research fields carried out through marine geophysical surveys is the study of the wreckage footprints connected to the seabed perturbation. In 2018, a strategic project planned by the Italian National Government Commissioner for the remediation in the Taranto area (Southern Italy) stands as a basic sample for such issues. The project aimed at the detection of anthropogenic impact in the highly polluted Mar Piccolo and Mar Grande basins seabed, through a multidisciplinary approach involving geological, biological, chemical, engineering, and ecological studies. The main purpose of the work was to identify any potential pollution source, focusing on anthropogenic sea-floor features such as uncontrolled dumping, wrecks, or other objects of peculiar origin. To achieve the purpose of the work, field surveys were planned and performed in order to direct a general policy and accurate planning for environmental remediation activities. Different marine geophysics methods were used to characterize the main sea-floor features and to detect each anthropogenic feature. A comparative analysis of a high-resolution dataset allowed to clarify the origin of some deep depressions on the Mar Piccolo sea-bottom, which at the first instance were associated with a natural origin, as the results of the Leonardo Da Vinci wreckage and related recovering activities. High-resolution morphobathymetric, magnetometric, and seismic data revealed the story of the Italian Royal Navy battleship which sunk on 2 August 1916 as a slight footprint on the Mar Piccolo seabed but a deep historical heritage of the city of Taranto. Moreover, final results demonstrate high-resolution marine survey methodologies’ complete applicability to environmental, historical, and scientific issues.

MICROPALEONTOLOGIA: Di Donato, V., et al. “The palaeoclimatic and palaeoceanographic history of the Gulf of Taranto (Mediterranean Sea) in the last 15 ky.” Global and Planetary Change 172 (2019): 278-297.

Lo studio presentato include elementi di micropaleontologia, sedimentologia e geochimica ed è stato condotto nel golfo di Taranto. La ricostruzione operata ha permesso di identificare le condizioni climatiche e paleoecologiche del Golfo di Taranto nel corso degli ultimi 15mila anni.

 

Abstract

 A multidisciplinary study, which includes micropaleontology, sedimentology and geochemistry, was carried out on the TEA-C6 core, raised in the Gulf of Taranto (north-western Ionian Sea). The chronological framework was yielded by tephrostratigraphy combined with ecostratigraphy and AMS 14C dating. New results allowed surface and bottom conditions in the Gulf of Taranto during the last 15 ky to be reconstructed, thus providing a detailed and age-constrained paleoclimate and paleocological record for this sector of the Mediterranean Sea. The quantitative record of past sea surface temperatures (SST) was obtained by means of Compositional Data Analysis (CoDA) methods applied to planktonic foraminifera assemblages. High-resolution analyses allowed the Sapropel S1 event to be characterised at centennial-scale resolution. The main interval of the sapropel S1, here dated between 10.2 cal ka and 7.8 cal ka, is preceded and followed by transition phases spanning several centuries and prevailing anoxic bottom conditions are punctuated by several episodes of partial oxygen recovery. The S1a interval corresponds to high summer SST, whereas an SST drop of about 2.5° took place towards the end of the S1b interval. New tephrochronological data record the signature of eruptive events from Italian volcanoes which were not documented on land up to date.

SEDIMENTI CONTAMINATI, INGEGNERIA CIVILE: De Gisi, Sabino, et al. “Recycling contaminated marine sediments as filling materials by pilot scale stabilization/solidification with lime, organoclay and activated carbon.” Journal of Cleaner Production (2020): 122416.

Lo studio prende in considerazione l’uso dei sedimenti marini contaminati trattati come materiali per l’ingegneria civile. Viene presentato nello specifico il caso dei sedimenti marini del Mar Piccolo il cui utilizzo ha mostrato un valido potenziale.

Abstract

Nowadays, stabilization/solidification (S/S) applied to the treatment of contaminated marine sediments (CMSs) represents a key technology for the production of new materials for civil engineering. Literature has shown the feasibility of CMSs recycling, although sediment needs pre-treatments for the removal of organic matter and to improve the mechanical properties of the product post S/S. In view of the full-scale applicability where it is essential to reduce any additional phase (i.e., pre-treatments), this study is aimed at demonstrating the technical feasibility of recycling CMSs as filling materials by S/S treatments with lime, organoclay and activated carbon. The original sediments are contaminated with heavy metals, PCBs, and PAHs, exceeding limits values prescribed by law. Different mixtures were tested on the STABSOL-P pilot scale plant. The absence of specific CMSs pre-treatments resulted in failure to comply with the 28-days leaching test only for copper; greater air curing with 56-days allowed it to be complied with for all the investigated metals. The organic contamination, while slowing down the process of chemical stabilization, allowed in any case to get a product environmentally compatible. The unconfined compression strength tests showed values (>28 kPa) that would allow potential CMSs recycling for environmental enhancement. The mass balance of the case study of the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Southern Italy) showed potential recycling of marine sediments (the production of 974 kg filling materials per 1000 kg of dredged sediment) with a consequent missed disposal in landfills of 0.65 m3/1000 kg of sediment.

ECONOMIA DEL TURISMO: Gattullo, Mariateresa, and Elena Palma. “Taranto in cammino: da bomba ecologica nazionale a tessera del mosaico turistico pugliese attraverso i giochi del mediterraneo 2025?”, Annali del Turismo, VIII, 2019, Edizioni Geoprogress

L’articolo prende in considerazione il percorso che la città di Taranto sta compiendo per superare la sua vocazione monoindustriale e collocarsi nel panorama turistico pugliese come una meta capace di attrattiva. In questa direzione, la prossima edizione dei Giochi del Mediterraneo potrebbe rappresentare una rampa di lancio praticabile.

Abstract

Although until the end of XX century, the metaphor most suitable for describing the
territorial organization of Apulian tourism is “the flesh and the bone”; starting from
the XXI century a wise regional policy has discovered new material and immaterial
components of territorial milieu and favored the mosaic composition of local tourist
space. In this mosaic, areas of Puglia that are highly equipped, but excluded from every
circuit of tourist attraction, have found a place, particularly Taranto, on which this
contribution focuses. Caged in the public image of an ecological bomb, Taranto is on
the way to a strategic reposition that, considering its past, can change its image into an
attractive center of the Apulian tourist area.

AMBIENTE E STUDI SOCIALI: Camarda, Domenico, et al. “Partecipazione e cognizione multi-agente nella strategia territoriale per Taranto: note prodromiche al nuovo piano”. Archivio di studi urbani e regionali : 127, 1, 2020,148-171.

Abstract: il percorso di ricerca per il nuovo piano di Taranto si è originariamente orientato verso modelli di costruzione e gestione partecipata della conoscenza. Dopo decenni di apatia organizzativa e problemi socio-ambientali, un processo di coinvolgimento strutturato ha indagato scenari di sviluppo futuri. Il modello mostra i risultato di ricerca interessanti, con grandi potenzialità strategiche legate ad una coscienza ambientale caparbia e resistente, prodotto cognitivo di una cittadinanza millenaria.

 

BIOLOGIA MARINA: Santacesaria, Francesca Cornelia, et al. “Long-term residency of Tursiops truncatus in the Gulf of Taranto (Northern Ionian Sea, Central-eastern Mediterranean Sea).” 2019 IMEKO TC-19 International Workshop on Metrology for the Sea Genoa, Italy, October 3-5, 2019

Lo studio segnalato documenta la distribuzione del Tursiops truncatus, detto anche Tursiope o delfino dal naso a bottiglia nel golfo di Taranto. Attraverso una campagna di foto identificazione svoltasi fra il 2013 e il 2018 è stato possibile verificare come alcuni esemplari siano ricorrenti nelle acque del golfo, suggerendo di fatto l’importanza della zona come habitat per la specie.

Abstract – Photo-identification data of Tursiops truncatus in the Gulf of Taranto were collected from 2013 to 2018, providing information on its residency pattern and spatial distribution in the study area. On a total of 1117 dolphins observed through the study period, 92 individuals were distinctly identified. Among them, 57 were re-sighted up to fourteen times and the occurrence of 36 individuals re-sighted in different years provides the evidence of multi-year resident, occasional visitor and transient individuals. These results suggest an important inter-annual variability in the habitat use of the study area and emphasize the importance of the Gulf of Taranto as suitable habitat for T. truncatus. Although the majority of the identified dolphins seem to prefer shallower waters within 200 m, 26 individuals have been re-sighted on upper slope grounds, suggesting the occurrence of an offshore ecotype in the study area. Further studies are necessary to investigate driving forces influencing seasonal residency and site fidelity patterns of this dolphin species.

IDROGEOLOGIA: Valenzano, E., et al. “Morfologia delle sorgenti sottomarine dell’area di Taranto (Mar Ionio).” Mem. Descr. Carta Geol. d’It. 105 (2020), pp. 65-69;

 

Uno studio sui citri, caratteristiche uniche dei fondali locali, ed in particolare sul citro di San Cataldo localizzato nel Mar Grande, corredato da un analisi della sua morfologia ottenuta tramite dati batimetrici multibeam.

Abstract – Le sorgenti sottomarine dell’area di Taranto sono note fin dall’antichità e vengono chiamate localmente “citri”. L’acqua dolce, che fuoriesce ad alta pressione, proviene da una falda acquifera circolante nei calcari mesozoici (Calcare di Altamura Fm.) confinata dalle argille subappennine plio-pleistoceniche. Nuovi dati batimetrici multibeam, hanno permesso per la prima volta di mappare e determinare in dettaglio la morfologia legata alle risorgive. Il citro di san Cataldo, nel Mar Grande, consiste in una depressione dalla forma complessa di circa 300 x 190 m. I fianchi di questa depressione sono interessati da recenti fenomeni di instabilità. Nel Mar Piccolo le risorgive sono associate a depressioni sub-circolari del fondale con diametro e profondità variabili.

STUDI SOCIOECONOMICI: Laura Giordano, Giuseppe Portacci, and Carmela Caroppo. “Multidisciplinary tools for sustainable management of an ecosystem service: The case study of mussel farming in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Mediterranean, Ionian Sea).” Ocean & coastal management 176 (2019): 11-23.

Un contributo allo studio delle coltivazioni di mitili nel Mar Piccolo di Taranto che prende in considerazione l’utilizzo di modelli di simulazione onde affermare l’inefficacia di una gestione non sostenibile di questa industria e delle coltivazioni massive.

Abstract: This paper describes the development of multidisciplinary simulation tools based on a system approach, and its contribution to local political debate on sustainable shellfish farming in a Mediterranean coastal site (Mar Piccolo of Taranto, Ionian Sea). Remote sensing images were used for the first time to count mussel culture plants and to validate information provided by stakeholders and farmers. The data obtained were even more important considering the lack of reliable official statistics. Further, a model was developed to simulate exploratory scenarios. In the modelling platform, the ecosystem and individual mussel growth models (built in the frame of the EU Integrated Project SPICOSA, Science and Policy Integration for Coastal System Assessment) are combined with the Mussel Farm Model (MFM). The simulated scenarios suggested that: 1. Farming is unsustainable, because it exceeds the system carrying capacity; 2. Plant overloading is exacerbated by the negative effects of recurrent heatwaves; 3. Sustainable management measures should be applied to obtain individuals of good quality as well as to extend the juveniles sale period and cope with climate crises. The results show that the described tools may help in the design of viable policies based on operational objectives and feasible technical options. Since until now, production trends cannot be determined based on natural and social factors alone, once applied, this tool will allow for a more exemplary production system. It could also become a good practice example towards a more sustainable development of coastal zones.