Archivio della categoria: Letteratura scientifica

IDROGEOLOGIA: Valenzano, E., et al. “Morfologia delle sorgenti sottomarine dell’area di Taranto (Mar Ionio).” Mem. Descr. Carta Geol. d’It. 105 (2020), pp. 65-69;

 

Uno studio sui citri, caratteristiche uniche dei fondali locali, ed in particolare sul citro di San Cataldo localizzato nel Mar Grande, corredato da un analisi della sua morfologia ottenuta tramite dati batimetrici multibeam.

Abstract – Le sorgenti sottomarine dell’area di Taranto sono note fin dall’antichità e vengono chiamate localmente “citri”. L’acqua dolce, che fuoriesce ad alta pressione, proviene da una falda acquifera circolante nei calcari mesozoici (Calcare di Altamura Fm.) confinata dalle argille subappennine plio-pleistoceniche. Nuovi dati batimetrici multibeam, hanno permesso per la prima volta di mappare e determinare in dettaglio la morfologia legata alle risorgive. Il citro di san Cataldo, nel Mar Grande, consiste in una depressione dalla forma complessa di circa 300 x 190 m. I fianchi di questa depressione sono interessati da recenti fenomeni di instabilità. Nel Mar Piccolo le risorgive sono associate a depressioni sub-circolari del fondale con diametro e profondità variabili.

STUDI SOCIOECONOMICI: Laura Giordano, Giuseppe Portacci, and Carmela Caroppo. “Multidisciplinary tools for sustainable management of an ecosystem service: The case study of mussel farming in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Mediterranean, Ionian Sea).” Ocean & coastal management 176 (2019): 11-23.

Un contributo allo studio delle coltivazioni di mitili nel Mar Piccolo di Taranto che prende in considerazione l’utilizzo di modelli di simulazione onde affermare l’inefficacia di una gestione non sostenibile di questa industria e delle coltivazioni massive.

Abstract: This paper describes the development of multidisciplinary simulation tools based on a system approach, and its contribution to local political debate on sustainable shellfish farming in a Mediterranean coastal site (Mar Piccolo of Taranto, Ionian Sea). Remote sensing images were used for the first time to count mussel culture plants and to validate information provided by stakeholders and farmers. The data obtained were even more important considering the lack of reliable official statistics. Further, a model was developed to simulate exploratory scenarios. In the modelling platform, the ecosystem and individual mussel growth models (built in the frame of the EU Integrated Project SPICOSA, Science and Policy Integration for Coastal System Assessment) are combined with the Mussel Farm Model (MFM). The simulated scenarios suggested that: 1. Farming is unsustainable, because it exceeds the system carrying capacity; 2. Plant overloading is exacerbated by the negative effects of recurrent heatwaves; 3. Sustainable management measures should be applied to obtain individuals of good quality as well as to extend the juveniles sale period and cope with climate crises. The results show that the described tools may help in the design of viable policies based on operational objectives and feasible technical options. Since until now, production trends cannot be determined based on natural and social factors alone, once applied, this tool will allow for a more exemplary production system. It could also become a good practice example towards a more sustainable development of coastal zones.

GEOLOGIA – De Santis, Vincenzo, et al. “The role of beach ridges, spits, or barriers in understanding marine terraces processes on loose or semiconsolidated substrates: Insights from the givoni of the Gulf of Taranto (southern Italy).” Geological Journal (2019).

De Santis, Vincenzo, et al. “The role of beach ridges, spits, or barriers in understanding marine terraces processes on loose or semiconsolidated substrates: Insights from the givoni of the Gulf of Taranto (southern Italy).” Geological Journal (2019).

L’articolo presenta una documentata e completa analisi geologica dei cosiddetti “givoni”, paludi costiere diffuse lungo la costa tarantina, e del loro ruolo di indicatori dell’antica line del litorale.

Abstract: This paper presents a detailed geological and geomorphological analysis of the so‐called givoni (low‐relief, mainly gravelly landforms subparallel to the coastline) associated with the MIS 5 terrace in the northern Gulf of Taranto (southern Italy). These landforms can be interpreted as former beach ridges, swash/drift‐aligned spits, or swash/drift‐aligned barriers (BSBs); thus, givoni are palaeoshoreline indicators. In the study area, recognizing the classic landforms associated with marine terraces, that is, surfaces and scarps, is difficult, as the givoni are often associated and variably combined with surfaces and scarps. Thus, we reconstruct the formation and evolution processes of the MIS 5 marine terrace, including the formation of surfaces, scarps, and BSBs (and the resulting composite landforms), in an overall evolutionary framework based on eustatic oscillations. Then, we reconstruct a complete set of situations in which BSBs form on loose or semiconsolidated substrates in response to eustatic oscillations: (a) BSBs can form during a highstand of a warm stage on previously consolidated sediment; (b) BSBs may represent coastlines formed during sea‐level standstills in the context of a general regressive phase following the highstand peak that created a relict sea cliff; (c) BSBs may represent coastlines formed during a new relative highstand in a warm substage on previously unconsolidated deposits formed during the same stage; and (d) BSBs may be formed by a process similar to that of the previous case, except that the sea level stopped rising against a pre‐existing BSB.

Maggio 2020

La città di Taranto ed il territorio del SIN rappresentano un insieme poliedrico di criticità e peculiarità che nel corso degli anni sono stati oggetto di molteplici studi di rilevanza internazionale che hanno coinvolto su vari aspetti del territorio tarantino. In questa sezione si vuole offrire al pubblico una selezione in continuo aggiornamento della letteratura scientifica pubblicata con particolare riguardo ai temi del monitoraggio ambientale, della rigenerazione urbana e sociale e delle particolarità dell’ecosistema dell’arco ionico tarantino.

 

 

MONITORAGGIO AMBIENTALE

Trifuoggi, Marco, et al. “Topsoil and urban dust pollution and toxicity in Taranto (southern Italy) industrial area and in a residential district.” Environmental monitoring and assessment 191.1 (2019): 43.

Abstract: Adverse environmental conditions in the Taranto area (southern Italy) were investigated in studies of air, marine sediment, and human health. The present study aimed at providing unprecedented information on soil pollution and toxicity in a set of sites around recognized pollution sources in the Taranto area, since previous studies were focused on marine or air pollution, or on human health effects. The investigated area included a steel foundry and a power plant, as well as some sites located in an adjacent neighborhood. Surface soil samples and urban dust were collected and submitted to inorganic and organic analyses and tested for toxicity in two invertebrate bioassay models; a sea urchin (Sphaerechinus granularis) and an annelid (Caenorhabditis elegans). Inorganic analysis was carried out using ICP-MS for elemental composition for a total of 34 elements, whose levels were evaluated as a function of bioassay data analyzed through principal component analysis (PCA). Other analyses included asbestos search by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and organic analysis for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic compounds (C10–C40). Toxicity bioassays were carried out on a sea urchin (Sphaerechinus granularis), and an annelid (Caenorhabditis elegans). Sea urchin bioassays evaluated effects of topsoil or street dust sample exposures (0.1 to 0.5% dry wt/vol) on developing embryos and on sperm, and scored as (a) % developmental defects, (b) inhibition of fertilization success and offspring damage, and (c) frequencies of mitotic aberrations. C. elegans mortality assay displayed significant toxicity associated with soil samples. The overall effects of samples showed very high toxicity at four out of nine sites. These effects were consistent with the highest levels measured for metals and PAHs. Further studies of health effects related to dust exposures in residential areas are warranted.

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Pasquale, Giungato, et al. “Correlazione tra inquinamento atmosferico da benzene e produzione di acciaio nella città di Taranto.” Le Scienze Merceologiche nell’era 4.0. Vol. 1. Franco Angeli, 2020.

Abstract: The city of Taranto is characterized by the presence of various industrial activities with high environmental impact, including an integral cycle steel plant. A controversial issue that cause oppose reactions between environmentalists and representatives of institutions is linked to benzene pollution and, its correlation to steel production. For this purpose the concentration of benzene was detected through the control unit A.R.P.A. “Machiavelli”, in Taranto, Puglia near the steelmaking industrial site, in the time frame from January 1st to June 30th of 2011 (year in which steel production is at its highest levels) and compared with levels found in the same time period but in the year 2018 to consider the effect of the reduction of production on the polluting load. The statistical assessment has been made using “polarplots” that carry out a wind-selective analysis. The results clearly show that as in 2018 the weak sources are linked to vehicular and harbor traffic, in 2011 the prevalence of the industrial site is clear both in terms of intensity and location.

 

BIOLOGIA

Russo, Paolo, and Attilio Pagli. “Fusinus fioritae n. sp.(Gastropoda: Fasciolariidae) from the central Apulia, Gulf of Taranto, Ionian Sea, Mediterranean Sea.” Bolletino Malacologico 55 (2019): 39-44.

Abstract: Viene descritto Fusinus fioritae n. sp. per il Golfo di Taranto, Mare Jonio, coste pugliesi. Si tratta di una specie di piccole dimensioni con una colorazione che lo diversifica nettamente da tutte le altre specie mediterranee, vivente in ambiente coralligeno tra i 50 ed i 90 m. Viene confrontato con alcune specie mediterranee. Si discute sulla importanza della presenza e del numero delle corde spirali secondarie non regolarmente presenti in individui della stessa specie.

Bellomo, Stefano, et al. “Photo-identification of Physeter macrocephalus in the Gulf of Taranto (Northern Ionian Sea, Central-eastern Mediterranean Sea).” 2019 IMEKO TC-19 International Workshop on Metrology for the Sea Genoa, Italy, October 3-5, 2019

Abstract: A photo-identification study of P. macrocephalus was carried out from 2016 to 2018 in the Gulf of Taranto, providing information on its distribution. Photographs of flank and flukes of individuals were collected to identify their natural marking pattern. In addition, a catalogue of photoidentified individuals was stored and embedded in the digital DolFin platform. During the study period, 13 sightings were recorded in the Gulf of Taranto in a depth range between 550 and 1200 m with a mean value of 853±193 m. The group size ranged from 1 to 7 specimens and calves were noted. Twelve sperm whales were photo-identified, showing a prevalence of marks on their flanks than flukes. The occurrence of sperm whale on the continental slope grounds suggests that the northernmost portion of the Taranto Valley canyon system can be a suitable habitat to this species as well as for other 4 cetacean species that, here, regularly perform essential tasks for their survival.

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Ciccarese, Salvatrice, et al. “Cytochrome b marker reveals an independent lineage of Stenella coeruleoalba in the Gulf of Taranto.” PloS one 14.3 (2019).

Abstract: Heterogeneity in geomorphological and hydrographical conditions throughout the Mediterranean Sea could be the driving factors behind the significant differences between putative sub-populations, although the existence of a large panmictic population of striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba (Meyen 1833) in this marine region could not be excluded. However, understanding the ecological implications of such genetic differentiation is difficult, as inferences about gene flow are usually made on evolutionary time scales and not along the ecological time frame over which most management and conservation practices are applied. In fact, as stated by the IUCN Red List, in the case of species assessed as vulnerable, the degree of genetic exchange between populations within a biogeographic region and its ecological implications represent a fascinating challenge that should be very deeply explored. This is even more significant in the Gulf of Taranto (Northern Ionian Sea, Central-eastern Mediterranean Sea), where the geomorphological and hydrographic characteristics support the hypothesis of a separated striped dolphin population genetically diverging from its original Mediterranean counterpart. To assess this hypothesis, a genetic analysis was carried out on DNA fragments of the mitochondrial cyt b gene to explore the evolutionary origin of S. coeruleoalba in the investigated area and its genetic diversity in comparison with available sequences from other Mediterranean and Atlantic populations. Results were discussed indicating ecological implications and suggesting conservation objectives. Moreover, a delphinid systematic was also suggested.

 

STUDI SOCIOECONOMICI

 Bellantuono, Nicola, et al. “Benessere e sostenibilità nelle aree di crisi: il caso Taranto.” XL CONFERENZA AISRe L’Aquila, 16-18 settembre 2019

Abstract:  Il lavoro si propone di approfondire le potenzialità di utilizzo delle misure del Benessere equo e sostenibile dei territori – Bes dei Territori (ad es. Taralli et al., 2015) per lo studio, l’analisi e il monitoraggio delle aree di crisi. A tal fine, dopo una breve introduzione sui principali modelli di misurazione esistenti oltre che sulle opportunità della misurazione del benessere a livello locale (Lowe et al., 2015; Cracolici et al., 2018; Verma e Raghubanshi, 2018), si discute il caso dell’area di Taranto, da diversi anni affetta da una grave crisi di tipo ambientale, sanitario, socio-economico e politico-istituzionale (Sito di Interesse Nazionale in base alla legge 426/1998 e Area di Crisi Industriale Complessa in base alla legge 171/2012), e, facendo leva sulle metodologie dell’Indice Corretto di Scarto Medio e dell’Adjusted Mazziotta-Pareto Index, si utilizzano le misure del Bes dei territori per condurre una analisi di contesto del territorio. Simili analisi sono condotte anche sulle province di Livorno, Terni, Venezia e Parma. Dalle analisi condotte emerge che, sebbene il Bes dei Territori sia capace di evidenziare alcune criticità delle aree esaminate, non sempre esso appare in grado di cogliere tutte le peculiarità delle aree di crisi. Spesso, pure in presenza di crisi conclamata, dal confronto con il dato regionale non emergono, infatti, le attese condizioni di spiccata criticità né a livello di indicatori né a livello di domini. Il lavoro si conclude con una breve discussione sulle possibili motivazioni alla base dei risultati ottenuti e su alcune proposte su cui focalizzare la ricerca futura.

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Cavaliere, Sara. QUESTIONI DI GIUSTIZIA E PIANIFICAZIONE URBANA. UN APPROCCIO COLLABORATIVO ALLA RIGENERAZIONE NELLA CITTÀ DI TARANTO. Diss. Politecnico di Torino, 2019.

Abstract: Nei dibattiti urbani contemporanei prende sempre più piede il tema della giustizia in relazione alle scelte di pianificazione del pubblico. Al punto che, oggi più che mai, la teoria della democrazia è messa a dura prova. La tesi si propone, infatti, partendo da quelli che sono i principi di giustizia, che hanno portato alla produzione della città contemporanea, profondamente frammentata, non solo dal punto di vista sociale, economico e dunque anche spaziale, ma anche sul piano ambientale, tanto da gravare sulla salute e sul benessere stesso della città e dei suoi abitanti. Viene posta particolare attenzione ai temi della politica e del conflitto e, soprattutto, alla loro stretta interdipendenza, capace di produrre ingiustizia ma nello stesso tempo innovazione. Diversi sono infatti gli esempi riportati di città ex industriali che, da una condizione di intrasformabilità, hanno riposto nella politica e nel conflitto la speranza e l’occasione di una rigenerazione urbana, che fosse il più integrata possibile nel territorio e nella società. Nei casi studio analizzati vengono infatti evidenziati i processi, siano essi avviati in una logica bottom-up o top-down, che hanno permesso un riscatto della città, facendo attenzione agli attori coinvolti, appartenenti alla sfera politica come a quella sociale. La città come espressione della società che la abita e la costruisce, questo è il pensiero su cui si articola l’intera ricerca. È stata scelta la città di Taranto come campo di analisi, caso emblematico fra le città vittime di ingiustizia urbana a livello spaziale, ambientale e sociale. Una città colonizzata, immobilizzata e delusa, che crede di essere priva di identità. Il ruolo strategico che le è stato riconosciuto all’interno dei disegni nazionali, se non addirittura mondiali, ha comportato non poche difficoltà dovute soprattutto alle scelte impartite “dall’alto”, a scapito delle dinamiche locali. Viene così proposta una lettura delle risorse che il territorio offre, ponendo attenzione alle potenzialità e non solo alle criticità. Le risorse di cui si parla non si limitano solo ai beni materiali, ma anche immateriali, come le risorse sociali. Viene così proposto un processo di rigenerazione in innovazione sociale che, partendo dal Terzo Settore e stakeholder potenti, non per forza appartenenti alla scala locale, agisce indirettamente sullo spazio. Ascoltando gli stessi attori locali, che primi fra tutti hanno a cuore la propria città, si è arrivati alla conclusione che: in una città contemporanea in cui a regnare sono il conflitto e l’imprevedibilità, i processi di rigenerazione a cui si è sempre stati abituati non bastano più. La società, con le sue forme di auto-organizzazione, potrebbe quindi portare al ripensamento del concetto stesso di progetto urbano, in cui lo stesso ruolo del progettista non si limiterebbe alla costruzione di scenari, ma farebbe da accompagnamento alla comunità e avvierebbe processi di apprendimento per le istituzioni. In questo modo, non sarà più gli spazi a determinare gli usi, ma gli usi a determinare gli spazi.

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Persico, Alessandro Angelo. “Steel for Development: Pasquale Saraceno and the Fourth Taranto Steelworks.” The Journal of European Economic History 48.3 (2019): 75-112.

Abstract: This essay covers the founding of Italy’s fourth steel-making center, in the city of Taranto, from the perspective of Pasquale Saraceno, an economist and head of the Institute for Industrial Reconstruction (IRI). The Taranto steel-works were built during a period of growing European integration, following lengthy discussions and considerable contention both within IRI and between IRI technocrats, politicians and the Government. The debate unfolded during the transition of the Christian Democratic Party toward a center-left alliance, at a time when Catholic leaders who favored increased state intervention in the economy were gaining power. As the Government created the necessary tools to regulate and run the productive economy, the steel industry became functional to more vigorous extraordinary intervention in the South of Italy. Following Aldo Moro’s rise to head the Christian Democrats, the Government adopted Saraceno’s method: planning became the key to achieving Italy’s economic unification through the identification of basic sectors, with public enterprises as fundamental engines of development. The Taranto plant, opened in 1964, became the symbol of an entire political era marked by economic planning and the dream of broadening the base of Italian democracy.

 

MEDICINA

Lucchini, Roberto G., et al. “Neurocognitive impact of metal exposure and social stressors among schoolchildren in Taranto, Italy.” Environmental Health 18.1 (2019): 67.

Abstract:

Background

Metal exposure is a public health hazard due to neurocognitive effects starting in early life. Poor socio-economic status, adverse home and family environment can enhance the neurodevelopmental toxicity due to chemical exposure. Disadvantaged socio-economic conditions are generally higher in environmentally impacted areas although the combined effect of these two factors has not been sufficiently studied.

Methods

The effect of co-exposure to neurotoxic metals including arsenic, cadmium, manganese, mercury, lead, selenium, and to socio-economic stressors was assessed in a group of 299 children aged 6–12 years, residing at incremental distance from industrial emissions in Taranto, Italy. Exposure was assessed with biological monitoring and the distance between the home address and the exposure point source. Children’s cognitive functions were examined using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Linear mixed models were chosen to assess the association between metal exposure, socio-economic status and neurocognitive outcomes.

Results

Urinary arsenic, cadmium and hair manganese resulted inversely related to the distance from the industrial emission source (β − 0.04; 95% CI -0.06, − 0.01; β − 0.02; 95% CI -0.05, − 0.001; β − 0.02 95% CI -0.05, − 0.003) while the WISC intellectual quotient and its sub-scores (except processing speed index) showed a positive association with distance. Blood lead and urinary cadmium were negatively associated with the IQ total score and all sub-scores, although not reaching the significance level. Hair manganese and blood lead was positively associated with the CANTAB between errors of spatial working memory (β 2.2; 95% CI 0.3, 3.9) and the reaction time of stop signal task (β 0.05; 95% CI 0.02, 0.1) respectively. All the other CANTAB neurocognitive tests did not show to be significantly influenced by metal exposure. The highest socio-economic status showed about five points intellectual quotient more than the lowest level on average (β 4.8; 95% CI 0.3, 9.6); the interaction term between blood lead and the socio-economic status showed a significant negative impact of lead on working memory at the lowest socio-economic status level (β − 4.0; 95% CI -6.9, − 1.1).

Conclusions

Metal exposure and the distance from industrial emission was associated with negative cognitive impacts in these children. Lead exposure had neurocognitive effect even at very low levels of blood lead concentration when socio-economic status is low, and this should further address the importance and prioritize preventive and regulatory interventions.

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 Mangia, C., et al. “Measuring the effectiveness of an intervention for atmospheric pollution abatement: the case study of Taranto.” Environmental Epidemiology 3 (2019): 259-260.

Abstract: Taranto is one of the most industrialized cities in southern Italy. Environmentally impacting activities include: steel production, oil refining, cement production, harbour activities. The steel plant hosts an openair huge mineral storage piles whose dusts strongly impact the Tamburi neighborhood, downwind the plant with northwestely winds. Epidemiological studies have revealed adverse health effects related to air pollution both in this neighborhood and other areas of the city. In 2012 the Apulia Region promulgated a law aiming to reduce PM10 coming from the piles. The intervention indicated steel plant activity restrictions to be adopted during day
s with forecasted strong northwesterly winds, so called “wind-days” (wds). Aim of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of the “wds” intervention on air quality in the city of Taranto, in view of an epidemiological study. Methods: Statistical analysis of air quality data measured in the monitoring network before (2009-2012) and after (2013-2016) the intervention is carried out. The analysis is performed for different meteorological conditions, different wds characteristics (strong/low wind persistence), Saharan dust intrusions, hour of the day. Results: We observe a reduction for PM10 difference between wds and no-wds before (8.9 μ
g/m3) and after (1.6 μg/m3) the intervention at the Tamburi site. The tendency is not uniform over the city and for other pollutants, and show a different behaviour with reference to strong/low wind persistence as well as the hour of the day in wds or no-wds. Conclusions: Although some aimed intervention effectiveness (to limit the wds dust emissions and their impact) is reached in some meteorological conditions and in some city areas, the overall emissions impact on the air quality of the city still calls for further detailed measures on other sources/substances likely at different meterological condition than wds.